- Indirect Ophthalmoscopy- To have a detailed 3 dimensional view of the retina till the periphery. The patient is asked to lie down and with an indirect ophthalmoscope, we look at the periphery of the retina. Sometimes, it may ne needed to press on the lids to see the extreme periphery. It is painless, but may cause slight discomfort as bright light is shone into the eyes. We use the Heine Indirect ophthalmoscpe from Germany for this purpose
- Contact and noncontact stereo biomicroscopy- This is done for a detailed 3 D examination of the macula and optic nerve and to look at the vitreo retinal interface. The 90 D lenses for noncontact biomicroscopy and the superquad and transequator are from VOLK.
- Digital fundus camera and imaging – We can take serial pictures to evaluate any subtle changes that may occur with time. A key for all diseases in which we may require observation. We use Zeiss FF 450 plus camera for this purpose.
- Fundus Fluorescein angiography- The corner stone of medical retinal diagnosis. Here a dye is injected into the veins of the hand and serial pictures are taken with the fundus camera. The patient will sit with the chin and forehead apposed against the machine. We use Zeiss FF 450 plus camera for this purpose
- Optical coherence tomography- A revolution that has improved our understanding of all retinal diseases. This offers an anatomic diagnosis at tissue level and is also nicknamed, bloodless histopathology. This machine gives us anatomic details of the microscopic retina with a resolution of 7 microns. We use a Zeiss OCT 4 machine.
- Ultrasonography and ultrasound biomicroscopy- Standard care for retinal diagnosis in hazy media like cataract and vitreous hemorrhage. An ultrasound biomicroscopy offers view to the extereme periphery of the retina like pars plana and ora serrata as well as the anterior segment and angle structures. We use an Appaswamy machine for USG.
- Humphrey visual field examination- This method of examination is automated visual fields which can offer great help in the functional quantification of the defects in visual function caused by macular pathologies.
- Short wavelength automated perimetry- Blue on yellow perimetry can have more accuracy than white on white fields in the diagnosis of specific conditions.
- Green laser photocoagulation – We use 532 double frequency YAG laser to treat the retina using a Zeiss Visulas machine.
- Laser indirect Ophthalmoscopy- Is used when we want to laser the extreme periphery, ROP, recent post operative cases etc.
- Photodynamic therapy- Special laser therapy for ARMD and CNVM.
- Visual evoked potentials- Electrophysiology will help us determine whether vision is there in infants, in cases with neurological illenesses etc.